In medicine, we are evaluated by the quality of our published studies and work. Below, you can see the details on some of our Clinical Outcomes and Technique Papers.


CLINICAL OUTCOME PAPERS


Stone KR, Pelsis JR, Na K, Walgenbach AW, Turek TJ. 2016. "Articular cartilage paste graft for severe osteochondral lesions of the knee: a 10- to 23-year follow-up study."Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the articular cartilage paste graft procedure at a minimum of 10 years from surgery. It is hypothesized that articular cartilage paste grafting can provide patients with a durable repair of severe full-thickness osteochondral injuries, measured by persistence of procedure-induced benefit and subjective outcome scores at 10 or more years. METHODS: Seventy-four patients undergoing paste grafting at a mean age of 45.3 ± 10.8 years (range 13-69 years) were followed up at a mean of 16.8 ± 2.4 years (range 10.6-23.2 years) post-operatively using validated subjective outcome measures; Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to estimate expected population benefit time. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier estimated median benefit time of 19.1 years (mean: 16.6 ± 0.9 years) for all patients undergoing paste grafting. Thirty-one (41.9 %) patients had progressed to arthroplasty at a mean of 9.8 ± 5.6 years (range 0.4-20.6 years). Ninety percent of patients reported that the procedure provided good to excellent pain relief. Median IKDC subjective score increased significantly at most recent follow-up (70.1) compared to preoperative (55.7, p = 0.013). Median WOMAC scores decreased significantly from 26 to 14 (p = 0.001). Median Tegner score increase from 4 to 6 was not found to be significant (ns). VAS pain averaged 23/100 at most recent follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent the paste grafting reported improved pain, function, and activity levels for an expected mean of 16.6 years, and for those who ultimately progressed to knee replacement, surgical treatment including the paste graft was able to delay arthroplasty until a mean age of 60.2 years, an age at which the procedure is commonly performed. Full-thickness articular cartilage loss can be successfully treated, reducing pain, and improving function, using this single-step, inexpensive arthroscopic procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

View this publication by clicking here


Feuerstein JD, Pelsis JR, Lloyd S, Cheifetz AS,Stone KR. 2016. "Systematic analysis of the quality of the scientific evidence and conflicts of interest in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee practice guidelines." Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 45(4), 379–385.
Objective: To determine the validity of the hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed using a combination of Mesh and text terms with limitations to guidelines was performed to identify hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. The study was performed from April 17, 2014 to October 1, 2014. Guidelines were reviewed for graded levels of evidence, methods used to grade the evidence, and disclosures of conflicts of interest. Additionally, guidelines were also assessed for key quality measures using the AGREE II system for assessing the quality of guidelines. Results: A total of 13 guidelines relevant to the diagnosis and/or treatment of hip/knee osteoarthritis was identified. The 180 recommendations reviewed were supported by 231 pieces of evidence. In total, 35% (n = 80; range: 0-26) were supported by level A evidence, 15% (n = 35; range: 0-10) were by level B, and 50% (n = 116; range: 0-62) were by level C. Median age of the guidelines was 4 years (±4.8; range: 0-16) with no comments on planned updates. In total, 31% of the guidelines included patients in the development process. Only one guideline incorporated cost consideration, and only 15% of the guidelines addressed the surgical management of osteoarthritis. Additionally, 46% of guidelines did not comment on conflicts of interest (COI). When present, there was an average 29.8 COI. Notably, 82% of the COI were monetary support/consulting. Conclusions: In total, 50% of the hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline recommendations are based on lower quality evidence. Nearly half the guidelines fail to disclose relevant COI and when disclosed, multiple potential COI are present. Future hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline development committees should strive to improve the transparency and quality of evidence used to formulate practice guidelines.

View this publication by clicking here


Stone K.R., Adelson W.S., Pelsis J.R., Walgenbach A.W., Turek T.J. 2010. "Long-term survival of concurrentmeniscus allograft transplantation and articular cartilage repair: A PROSPECTIVE TWO- TO 12-YEAR FOLLOW-UP REPORT." J Bone Joint Surg Br 92-B(7): 941-948.

We describe 119 meniscal allograft transplantations performed concurrently with articular cartilage repair in 115 patients with severe articular cartilage damage. In all, 53 (46.1%) of the patients were over the age of 50 at the time of surgery. The mean follow-up was for 5.8 years (2 months to 12.3 years), with 25 procedures (20.1%) failing at a mean of 4.6 years (2 months to 10.4 years). Of these, 18 progressed to knee replacement at a mean of 5.1 years (1.3 to 10.4). The Kaplan-Meier estimated mean survival time for the whole series was 9.9 years (sd 0.4). Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess the effect of covariates on survival, with age at the time of surgery (p = 0.026) and number of previous operations (p = 0.006) found to be significant. The survival of the transplant was not affected by gender, the severity of cartilage damage, axial alignment, the degree of narrowing of the joint space or medial versus lateral allograft transplantation. Patients experienced significant improvements at all periods of follow-up in subjective outcome measures of pain, activity and function (all p-values < 0.05), with the exception of the seven-year Tegner index score (p = 0.076).

View this publication by clicking here


Stone K.R., A.W. Walgenbach, A. Freyer. 2008. "Lessons Learned From Our First 100 Meniscus Allograft Transplants in Arthritic Knees." Musculoskeletal tissue regeneration : biological materials and methods. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Stone, K.R., A.W. Walgenbach, T.J. Turek, A. Freyer, and M.D. Hill. 2006. "Meniscus allograft survival in patients with moderate to severe unicompartmental arthritis: a 2- to 7-year follow-up." Arthroscopy 22 (5): 469-478.


PURPOSE: We present meniscus allograft survival data at least 2 years from surgery for 45 patients (47 allografts) with significant arthrosis to determine if the meniscus can survive in an arthritic joint. Type of Study: Prospective, longitudinal survival study. METHODS: Data were collected for 31 men and 14 women, mean age 48 years (range, 14 to 69 years), with preoperative evidence of significant arthrosis and an Outerbridge classification greater than II. Failure is established by previous studies as allograft removal. No patient was lost to follow-up. RESULTS: The success rate was 42 of 47 allografts (89.4%) with a mean failure time of 4.4 years as assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Statistical power is greater than 0.9, with alpha = 0.05 and N = 47. There was significant mean improvement in preoperative versus postoperative self-reported measures of pain, activity, and functioning, with P = .001, P = .004, and P = .001, respectively, as assessed by a Wilcoxon rank-sum test with P = .05. CONCLUSIONS: Meniscus allografts can survive in a joint with arthrosis, challenging the contraindications of age and arthrosis severity. These results compare favorably with those in previous reports of meniscus allograft survival in patients without arthrosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

View this publication by clicking here


Stone, K.R., A.W. Walgenbach, A. Freyer, T.J. Turek, and D.P. Speer. 2006. "Articular cartilage paste grafting to full-thickness articular cartilage knee joint lesions: a 2- to 12-year follow-up." Arthroscopy 22 (3): 291-299.


PURPOSE: To prospectively assess clinical outcomes and regeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage lesions treated with an articular cartilage paste grafting technique. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective, longitudinal case series. METHODS: We treated 125 patients (136 procedures; 34% female, 66% male; mean age, 46 years; range, 17 to 73 years) with an Outerbridge classification of grade IV lesions with an articular cartilage paste graft. Clinical data were recorded 2 to 12 years from surgery, with 20 of 145 patients lost to follow-up over 12 years (13.7%). Clinical outcomes were captured annually with validated Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Tegner subjective questionnaires. Regenerated cartilage biopsy specimens were obtained at second-look arthroscopy from 66 patients and evaluated as to quality and quantity of defect fill by a blinded, independent histopathology reviewer. RESULTS: Preoperative versus postoperative validated pain, functioning, and activity measures improved significantly (P < .001). Clinically, 18 of the 125 patients were considered failures (14.4%), with 10 patients undergoing subsequent joint arthroplasty and 8 who reported worse pain after surgery. Regional histologic variation occurred. Forty-two of 66 biopsy specimens (63.6%) showed strong and consistent evidence of replacement of their articular surface, and 18 of 66 biopsy specimens (27.3%) showed development of areas of cartilage. CONCLUSIONS: Paste grafting is a low-cost, 1-stage arthroscopic treatment for patients with Outerbridge classification grade IV arthritic chondral lesions. The procedure offers excellent, long-lasting, pain relief, restored functioning, and possibility of tissue regeneration for patients with painful chondral lesions in both arthritic and traumatically injured knees. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, case series.

View this publication by clicking here


TECHNIQUE PAPERS


Stone, K.R., Pelsis J.R., Adelson W.S., Walgenbach, A.W. 2010. "Meniscus Reconstruction: the new field of rebuilding meniscus cartilage." Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy, Sport Traumatology 7 (3): 9-18.

The collagen meniscus implant serves as a regeneration template for tissue repair and may expand the range of meniscus injuries that can be saved rather than resected. The objective of this monograph is to describe a new field of meniscus reconstruction in which regeneration templates are used to re-build missing segments of the meniscus and to expand the indications for meniscus repairs.

View this publication by clicking here


Stone, K.R., A. Freyer, T. Turek, A.W. Walgenbach, S. Wadhwa, and J. Crues. 2007. "Meniscal sizing based on gender, height, and weight." Arthroscopy 23 (5): 503-508.

PURPOSE: Successful meniscus transplantation may depend on accurate sizing. Meniscal sizing is currently determined by measuring a combination of bony landmarks and soft-tissue insertion points through images obtained radiographically or by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The literature widely reports inaccuracy in sizing resulting from radiographic errors in magnification, erroneous identification of bony landmarks, and difficulty in differentiating between the soft-tissue and bone interface. In our meniscus transplantations we have observed that when the height and weight of the recipient matched those of the donor, the meniscal size appeared to be a match at surgical implantation; we designed this study to confirm this observation. METHODS: The MRI-based meniscal sizing of 111 patients (63 male and 38 female patients; mean age, 44 years [range, 15 to 76 years]), totaling 147 menisci (87 lateral and 60 medial), was compared with the height, weight, gender, and body mass index (BMI) of each patient. MRI scans were obtained with a 1.0-Tesla MRI system (ONI Medical Systems, Wilmington, MA). Sizing was performed by an independent musculoskeletal MRI radiologist as established by the literature. Statistical methods include nonparametric Pearson correlation (r) between MRI-based lateral meniscal width, lateral meniscal length, medial meniscal width, medial meniscal length, total tibial plateau width, and patient height, weight, gender, and BMI. Significance at the P = .05 level was used. RESULTS: Height was found to have a linear relationship to total tibial plateau, which has a good predictive correlation with meniscal dimensions of r > 0.7. Female patients generally present with smaller dimensions than male patients. High-BMI groups present with significantly larger meniscal dimensions than low-BMI groups at any given height. CONCLUSIONS: Height, weight, and gender are easily obtained variables and are proportional to meniscal tissue dimensions. These exploratory statistics establish correlations between height, weight, gender, total tibial plateau width, and meniscal size. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Height, weight, and gender should be considered by both tissue banks and surgeons as fast and cost-effective variables by which to predict meniscal dimensions.

View this publication by clicking here


Stone K.R., A.W. Walgenbach. 2003. "Meniscal allografting: the three-tunnel technique." Arthroscopy 19 (4): 426-30.

This technical note describes an improved arthroscopic technique of meniscal transplan- tation that simplifies the surgical procedure and secures the allograft to the tibia at 3 sites. The technique is useful for both medial and lateral meniscal transplantation and has been used in our clinic for over 60 meniscal transplantation procedures.

View this publication by clicking here


Stone K.R., A.W. Walgenbach. 1997. "Surgical technique for articular cartilage transplantation to full thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint." Oper Tech Orthop (7):305-311.


Focal arthritic defects in the knee lead to pain, swelling, and dysfunction. Treatment of the defects has includeddrilling, abrasion, and grafting. This report describes our surgical technique of autogenous articular cartilage grafting of arthritic and traumatic articular cartilage lesions. Articular cartilage grafting can be performed as a single arthroscopic outpatient procedure. The mixture of articular cartilage and cancellous bone appears to provide a supportive matrix for cartilage formation. Pain relief is excellent if careful surgical technique and a defined rehabilitation program is followed. Further collagen typing data and additional biopsies will reveal more about the durability of the newly formed cartilage.

View this publication by clicking here